GREEN COOLING SOLUTIONS
Non-ozone depleting and low global warming potential, HFO-based refrigerant for the new water chillers, heat pumps, and air conditioning equipment
Environment-friendly low-GWP refrigerant to replace R134a
Atmospheric greenhouse effect and ozone depletion caused by refrigerant emissions have led to significant changes in air conditioning and refrigeration industry, as well as to the development of the new, low global warming potential refrigerants including R1234ze.
Similarly to R134a, R1234ze is a medium pressure refrigerant which belongs to the range of low-GWP HFO (hydrofluoroolefin) fluids. R1234ze has almost the same critical and boiling temperatures and lower critical pressure and compatible with most common materials. It is an energy-efficient alternative to R134a refrigerant in air-cooled and water-cooled chillers, as well as in other medium temperature applications such as heat pumps, and CO2 cascade systems in commercial refrigeration.
Performance, features and benefits
To mitigate climate change and protect the environment by reducing emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), the European Parliament imposed the EU Regulation on F-gases No. 517/2014 to gradually reduce the use of HFCs to 21% by 2030. In accordance with these regulations, future air conditioning and refrigeration systems shall use refrigerants with lower GWP values, and many existing systems will have to replace the refrigerants with alternatives ones.
HFO refrigerants, including R1234ze which can be applied to stationary refrigeration systems, are categorized as having zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), low-GWP thus offering a more environmentally friendly alternative to HFC refrigerants. Operating conditions and performance of R1234ze are in line with those of R134a, and it can replace R134a in the new refrigeration equipment, water chillers, and heat pumps.
The capacities of the cooling systems based on R1234ze refrigerant are lower than those achieved with R134a, but R1234ze systems consume less power, and the final result is a slightly higher energy efficiency ratio of R1234ze based systems. At the same time, the capacity issue restricts R1234ze usage as a drop-in replacement for the current R134a refrigeration systems.
FLAMMABILITY AND TOXICITY
HFO refrigerants have been identified as being mildly flammable under some non-operational conditions. In terms of operational safety, ASHRAE classified R1234ze in the safety group A2L. Toxicity investigations and compatibility tests of the materials used in the refrigeration circuits have shown positive results for R1234ze. Some lubricants show increased chemical reactivity which can be suppressed by the addition of stabilizers.
Boiling point @ 1 atm
Ozone depletion potential
ASHRAE safety class
Liquid density @ 21.1 °C
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