Customers are increasingly moving towards air conditioning and refrigeration equipment running on lower-GWP alternatives than currently widely used refrigerant R410a.
The current restrictions, such as Europe’s F-Gas regulations, have started the phase-down of HFCs, including R410a, to slow global warming and reduce direct carbon emissions. With the start of HFCs phase-down, prices and availability of these refrigerants were significantly affected and led to a growing demand for lower-GWP alternatives.
The development of environmentally friendly refrigerants for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment is imperative to the growth of HVAC technology. The low-GWP refrigerants like R1234ze are promising candidates for replacing HFC refrigerants. However, these refrigerants are flammable. To address the flammability issue, Honeywell developed Solstice® N15, a non-flammable HFO blend.
Free Cooling Concept
Free cooling is a method of cooling by using ambient air rather than performing the refrigeration cycle with, e.g., with a chiller. Many cooling systems engaged for air conditioning or industrial cooling require chilled water throughout the year. During cold seasons, ambient air is cool enough, colder than the supply chilled water setpoint, and mechanical cooling with the chiller’s compressors can be replaced with the free cooling operation. Even in warm climates, free cooling can produce energy savings, as fan motors consume much less energy than compressors.
This month, Kaltra announced the completion of a service project for the replacement of condenser coils for the chilled water production plant of a Tier-III data center in Munich, Germany. More than 120 original heat exchangers reaching the end of service life have been replaced with Kaltra coils providing a long lifespan and additional corrosion protection.
Capacity control is in high demand for many cooling systems where cooling loads are not constant, and adjusting the system’s capacity to meet the prevailing load is essential for optimum efficiency. Efficiency primarily depends on compressor suction and discharge pressures, with the influence of secondary factors like useful and non-useful superheat and subcooling. As the screw compressor unloads, its suction pressure lowers (at the fixed condensing temperature), and efficiency decreases. Capacity control mechanisms allow maintaining the desired suction pressure by adjusting the refrigerant flow through the compressor.
Cognizant of its environmental stewardship and responsibility, Kaltra advances with low global warming potential solutions for chillers, now releasing R454b versions of its scroll compressor-based models.
Recently introduced chiller family based on Turbocor oil-free compressors and distinguished by high energy efficiency and environmental safety, received falling-film evaporators in addition to flooded models.
Kaltra, the specialist in air-conditioning and heat transfer technologies, modernized its Turbocor compressor-based chillers with air-cooled condensers and presents performance highlights of the series.
The Lightstream Turbo II series is a unique development in the field of demand-responsive chillers, specially designed for variable-load cooling and optimized for the novel lower-GWP refrigerants R1234ze and R513a.
Every chiller or chiller plant should be, for the most part, relatively self-reliant. Yet like all heavy machinery, regular preventive maintenance can improve performance, prevent breakdowns, and extend the service life of the equipment. Chillers should be inspected leastwise two times a year if they are only used during the cooling seasons and four times a year in case of continuous operation.
We recommend the following procedures to keep your chiller system at peak performance and avoid unexpected shutdowns and costly downtimes. The below checklist has been compiled to help chiller plant operators conduct detailed and reliable maintenance on air-cooled and water-cooled chillers.
Kaltra extends the portfolio of low-GWP chillers with the launch of Lightstream Scroll range based on its Versa platform and operating on refrigerant R32. Lineup’s capacity ranges from 300 to 1100kW at nominal conditions and demonstrates the same high level of efficiency as previously introduced R452b-based models.
Lightstream Scroll R32 available with the same extensive set of hydronic options, free cooling circuit, safety options, low-noise models, and control software functionality as found in existing Lightstream Scroll chillers running on refrigerants R410a and R452b.
As global warming potential becomes more of an issue, a growing number of industries and businesses moving toward new refrigerants. One of the best examples is the recent upgrade completed by Kaltra for ArcelorMittal’s hot strip rolling mill cooling in Belgium. Recently, the cooling system was driven by water-cooled chillers charged with large amounts of refrigerant R134a, which is characterized by high GWP value of 1430.
Following the debut of its water-cooled chillers running on refrigerant R452b this March, Kaltra announces an air-cooled range of chillers with scroll compressors using this low-GWP refrigerant.
Lightstream Scroll R452b chillers will be available in the capacity range from 260 to 1000kW and may be fitted with the highly efficient free cooling system. Other options include partial heat recovery with a desuperheater or full heat recovery, making these chillers a multi-purpose solution for simultaneous, year-round production of chilled and hot water.
Kaltra is now offering low-GWP refrigerant R452b across its Easystream-M range of modular water-cooled chillers with scroll compressors – an environment-friendly alternative to R410a gas with a GWP value as low as 675. R452b is a zeotropic HFO/HFC blend classified as a mildly flammable refrigerant (A2L ASHRAE safety class) which delivers an optimal balance of performance, safety, and compatibility to replace R410a and outperforms other R410a alternatives.
Kaltra, a leading manufacturer of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, has announced the commercial launch of scroll chillers that expands an existing lineup of condenserless and water-cooled models with air-cooled version.
It is well-known that the cooling equipment dominates in energy consumption in commercial buildings. Alongside, electricity prices are increasing around the world, increasing pressure on facility managers to reduce the operating costs incurred by operating chillers. The facility managers at a newly constructed commercial building in Canary Wharf, London, were tasked to build and deploy a central air conditioning system with improved energy efficiency and lifecycle value, and Kaltra was invited to contribute to this task.
Kaltra continues to move proactively to refrigerants with a lower global warming potential with the introduction of R450a-driven air-cooled chillers.
The chillers feature fixed-speed screw compressor combined with an inverter-driven one. The unit starts with the inverter compressor; when the cooling demand exceeds its capacity, the second compressor starts up at full speed to ensure the best possible efficiency. Capacity regulation is carried out by the inverter-driven compressor.
The air conditioning chiller supporting the movie theatre building in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, was the original equipment that has reached the end of its service life. To address the recurring maintenance issues associated with air conditioning system, the building owner has decided to replace existing equipment, including the original chillers installed at the roof gantry, with a modern energy-efficient system.
With the expansion of its premises, a large commercial centre located in Marseille needed to increase the capacity of its chilled water plant to meet the growing demand for chilled water production. Opened in 2014, Les Terrasses du Port occupies the area of more than 60,000 square meters and is a home to around 200 stores, restaurants, and food courts.
Several concerns including inefficient energy use and growing maintenance costs initiated the need for a chiller replacement at Business Park Vienna, Austria. Having been installed for a long period, and being one of the largest energy consumers in a multi-story building, the existing air-cooled chiller did not operate efficiently under part load conditions such as non-business hours air-conditioning.
Following the initial installation of process cooling system at the GP2Z industrial area in 2016, Kaltra continues to extend the facility and adds new equipment to increase its overall capacity to 5MW cooling.
Initially equipped with air-cooled Lightstream series chillers, GP2Z chilled water production plant will be supplemented with high-reliable units based on screw compressors. Kaltra will integrate new equipment with existing automation system implemented during the first stage of the project.
In response to the rising demand for high-end, energy-efficient cooling solutions, Kaltra has expanded its flagship lineup of Turbocor-based chillers. So far, the customers have been able to pick from the models with the capacity range of up to 1800kW. For increased requirements, Kaltra has added 5- and 6-compressor models to Powerstream Turbo chiller family making it suitable for large commercial and industrial cooling applications with up to 4600kW cooling power per chiller unit. With an ESEER value as high as 10.50 and new control software which optimizes the performance of multi-compressor units, Powerstream Turbo chillers meet the highest demands for energy efficiency at any operating condition.
With different screw compressors, inverter-driven and fixed-speed, Kaltra launched its widest chiller lineup which includes R134a and R1234ze models, 160 in total. Units with R513a refrigerant are available by request. New Lightstream Screw V chillers cover all applications in the capacity range from 200 to 3600kW. In addition to process cooling and air conditioning tasks, the new screw chillers are addressed for mission-critical applications where the reliability and precise temperature control are the crucial factors.
Amount of electrical power consumed by cooling systems in energy-intensive industries like data centers and manufacturing plants is huge, especially in hot climate locations, and this fuels the development of new, energy-efficient cooling solutions and equipment for mission-critical applications. One of the more promising solutions is evaporative cooling combined with the conventional compressor-based system.
Over time, increasing power density and growing number of installed servers had increased the heat load on Telecity data center cooling system which operates on a 24/7 basis 365 days on the year. Existing fixed-speed chillers installed during the building’s construction could not meet the cooling demand and provide the necessary redundancy Telecity required. As a result, the cooling system needed to be upgraded to keep pace with the data center’s growth.
From an energy usage point of view, chillers are the most energy-intensive equipment to run and the key components within a chiller that impact performance and energy consumption are compressors. Turbocor compressors with built-in variable speed control can offer substantial energy savings of 50-60% compared to chillers equipped with fixed-speed compressors. In addition to the stepless capacity control, the Turbocor compressors employ built-in inlet guide vanes to trim the compressor capacity at low loads.
Supermarkets are one of the most energy-intensive types of commercial buildings. Supermarket refrigeration systems consume the significant amount of energy to maintain freezing temperatures for a variety of items intended for human consumption on a 24 hours a day, seven days a week basis, which implies that the refrigeration equipment is never shut off. In a typical supermarket, sales area of 1000m² consumes around 300.000kWh annually for refrigeration, including the power consumed by compressors, condensers, coolers, and evaporator defrosting.
Processing of milk products requires the correctly designed process in order to attain end products of the highest quality. Processing of milk involves pasteurization, a technique that destroys pathogens in milk and makes it safe to drink. Pasteurization necessitates the use of chilled water to cool down the milk after the heating-up process to prevent the deterioration. During the cooling process, the pasteurized milk has to be cooled to 0°C. Thus, the production of chilled water for dairy processing operations is a vital part of producing safe and high-quality consumer products. Tight thermal control is also a crucial requirement for dairy processing facilities.
The main drivers which fuelled the modernization of a cooling plant at 4.000 sq. meter outlet were rising energy bills and a sharp increase in maintenance costs. The original chiller plant which included units contained ozone-depleting refrigerant was in need of replacing with more efficient and quiet equipment. Based on the survey and energy analysis performed by Kaltra engineers, the new equipment necessary to replace the existing equipment for an energy saving modernization was specified, including two 300kW variable speed drive chillers, together with quieter dry coolers.
At the Sanofi/France production site, the original chilled water plant functioned as initially intended, but a steady decline in energy performance and sharp increases in maintenance costs of the plant equipment were experienced by the customer. Prior to starting the upgrade project of the plant, the owners made the decision to invest by using technology giving the highest return over the lifecycle of the equipment.
In the last week of 2017, Kaltra Innovativtechnik completed installation and commissioning work on the chiller replacements for a four-star luxury hotel located in Malaga, Spain.
The customer experienced inadequate comfort air conditioning from the existing air-cooled chillers and escalating operating costs. The hotel operator called on Kaltra for a replacement to reduce energy consumption, improve the reliable, smooth and quiet operation of the system.
In most developed countries, a large amount of energy use of about 6% of the total is for air conditioning and refrigeration. The same is true for many hot countries where air conditioning systems use up to 40% of energy in the cities, and this could be a major problem as developing economies continue to grow.
As a part of its long-term product development roadmap, Kaltra Innovativtechnik introduces the next generation of its Ultracompact product line. This series covers the cooling duty range between 50 and 300kW with capacity increases of 25kW and provides total or partial heat recovery in compact machine design and suitable for air-cooled applications across many industries.
When it comes to chilled water plant optimization, the control strategy based on management of individual water chillers is not an optimum approach to achieve the best results in terms of energy efficiency.
Individual control of the water chillers with common pipework will cause unnecessary cycling of compressors and associated excessive power consumption as a response to changes in cooling demand; consequently, compressor cycling will lead to unstable return water temperature and increased wear of compressors.
Trending Turbocor-based chiller family by Kaltra has been extended with highly efficient models with extra condenser banks, which enable lower condensing temperatures and 15% higher energy efficiency rates (EER) compared to standard Lightstream Turbo models, as well as reduced noise emission level.
Kaltra Innovativtechnik, a German-based provider of innovative thermal management technologies and advanced cooling equipment, is excited to announce the launch of the new lineup of freecooling chillers based on frequency-controlled compact screw compressors and microchannel technology adopted for both condensing and freecooling coils.
The new logistics hub located near Erlangen, Germany, serves more than 40 international customers and guarantees just-in-time delivery for the clients across Europe. The new center with approx. 35,000m² is dedicated to storing bulky materials under controlled environmental conditions provided by Kaltra Lightstream Screw free cooling chillers.
German chiller manufacturer, Kaltra Innovativtechnik, is set to showcase its new Easystream family of air- and water-cooled chillers with scroll compressors in March 2017.
New chillers are intended for either indoor or outdoor installation. The series covers the capacity range starting from 40kW and up to 480kW with cooling densities of up to 220kW/m². When used with Mistral condensers/dry coolers, Easystream allows for installation in populated urban areas and anywhere where low noise pollution is a crucial factor.
Kaltra Innovativtechnik begins marketing and selling updated Ultracompact air-cooled chillers. Each chiller model in the Ultracompact range features an aluminium frame and paneling with a 10-year corrosion resistance warranty.
The Lightstream Turbo chiller family has been designed with attention to every detail to maximize operational reliability. It is ideally suited to the requirements of mission-critical applications like data centers, telecom facilities and clean rooms, and in every area where reliability is a crucial factor.
Due to its excellent efficiency at part-load conditions, the Lighstream Turbo chiller is a brilliant economy solution for applications where the heat load is not constant or expected to increase.
With its installation experience and technical expertise, Kaltra was chosen by the customer to assist in the development of the new chilled water production plant for the LPG recovery facility at the GP2Z industrial zone, Algeria.
WHO WE ARE
Kaltra is a customer-focused developer and supplier of reliable, energy efficient thermal management equipment and solutions.
From the professionalism of our research and development engineers to the wide experience of our service team, we are dedicated to delivering you the best service possible.